This blog follows my prior blog on terrorism. Hezbollah has been considered a terrorist group by some countries, and a political group by others. In no way should it be lumped together with Al-Qaeda and ISIS.
It was unnecessary to explain why Al-Qaeda and ISIS are classified as terrorists organizations as their actions make this abundantly clear. Same goes for Boko Haram. and Al-Shabaab, equally evil and destructive. No country supports any of these groups. Individuals within some countries find ways to support terrorist activities. ISIS found many ways to support its organization, from taking over oil fields and selling oil, to looting antiquities and selling them. Boko Haram and ISIS sold captured women as “brides.” These groups are truly defiling the religion of Islam.
Now, Hezbollah is different in its origin. It originated in defense of Lebanon, at least from the Muslim’s perspective. From the Israel’s perspective, this invasion was the only alternative to ending the attacks by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The PLO originated as a group to liberate the country of Palestine from Israel through armed struggle. It was founded in 1964. After being attacked in Jordan, the PLO sought refuge in south Lebanon. The PLO continued to attack Israel which retaliated with air strikes into southern Lebanon. The Israel and the US in 1982 considered the PLO a terrorist organization. The PLO as Yasser Arafat as its leader relocated in 1982 to Tripoli, located in the more northern area of Lebanon.
I watched an Israeli commentator on television explain, “Hezbollah is something we created.” I would never go this far, but Hezbollah certainly arose as a resistance militant group , after Israel occupied southern Lebanon. After the Israel invasion of Lebanon, Iran saw an opportunity to strengthen its hand in Lebanon, by consolidating the Shi’a militants into united party.
40 Years of Peace gone in four months
There is no question that Israel through it’s military force, was determined to join with the Christian (Maronite) militants in south Lebanon (“Lebanon Free State”), and create an “Israeli friendly” country to its north. From the Muslim perspective, they installed a puppet government controlling Beirut. According to Wikipedia:
By expelling the PLO, removing Syrian influence over Lebanon, and installing a pro-Israeli Christian government led by President Bachir Gemayel, Israel hoped to sign a treaty which Menachem Begin promised would give Israel “forty years of peace.”
The Maronites Christian population has been estimated to be nearly 22% of the Lebanon’s population. Begin’s plan began to fail with the assassination of Gemayel in September 1982 and begun the Lebanese civil war.
Lebanon Civil War (1982 to 1990) and Hezbolla emerges to an organization to defend Shi’a Muslims against Occupation by Israel
The civil war starting in 1982 in Lebanon was a proxy fight on a large scale, very similar to the conflict today in Syria. Iran funded Hezbollah, to fight on behalf of Shi’a Muslims. Israel supported the Lebanon Free Army formed by the Maronite Christians. Outside countries were picking their proxies to fight in the Lebanon war.
According to Wikipedia:
Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi’a groups under one roof…
Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass the Israeli occupation. Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah’s 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of “the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land”, submission of the Phalangists to “just power” and bringing them to justice “for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians”, and permitting “all the sons of our people” to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to “pick the option of Islamic government”. Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, and SLA collapsed and surrendered.
This is the historical context of Hezbollah. Hezbollah can claim they liberated south Lebanon from Israeli control. As ironic as it might seem to non-Arab countries, it is Israel which is portrayed as the terrorist state, and not Hezbollah. Iran, according to Wikipedia, was responsible for creating unity among groups resisting the South Lebanon Army. Much of this support was for weapons and trained military forces.
The civil war in Lebanon was brutal and left the capital devastated. There were approximately 120,000 fatalities. I have seen it first hand, as one of the bullet ridden buildings was left standing in Beirut after the reconstruction. There are Shi’a and Sunni Muslims in Lebanon, in addition to the Christian population. The list of belligerent groups is listed in Wikipedia.
It was easy for Syria’s military to enter the war given the chaos and violence in Beirut. They certainly had an interest of not having a flood of refugees come into their country and have country aligned with the Christians and Israel on their border. They could claim they were simply helping Lebanon defend itself from Israeli aggression. An peace agreement was finally reached in 1990, which mandated the withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon. Since the Taif agreement, Lebanon has several more conflicts, but nothing in comparison to the civil war. See links on Lebanon and the civil war for more information. At present, there is a delicate balance between the various secular groups. The government is basically a power sharing arrangement with a Muslim Prime Minister (Hariri) and a Christian President (Aoun).
You do not hear of Hezbollah being accused of or claiming responsibility for terror attacks in the US, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Yet, right wing groups have vehemently attacked Hezbollah as a highly dangerous terrorist organization, controlled by Iran. This is politics. Conservative Republicans routinely criticized the Obama administration for the Nuclear Deal which they considered would greatly increase Iran’s support of terrorist activities, primarily Hezbollah.
Hezbollah is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, along with its military/security wing by the United Kingdom, Australia and the European Union (Wikipedia).
Israel is the most vocal on their hate of Hezbollah. They correctly state the Hezbollah is responsible for the deaths of many Israel citizens. However, Israel has been responsible for many civilian deaths. In the conflicts between Israel and southern Lebanon, it is sometimes difficult to say who is most responsible, but civilian deaths result on both sides.
Hezbollah’s allies according to Wikipedia are Iran, Syria, Iraq, Russia, Cuba, North Korea, and Venezuela. Not a particularly nice group of friends! The only country willing to support Hezbollah is Iran. The headquarters of Hezbollah are in Beirut, Lebanon.
Any armed group outside government control would be considered a threat to an established government. There is no question that Hezbollah has weapons, and is organized as a Shi’a militia. Thus, the “military wing” of Hezbollah is condemned by many countries. However, the origins and intent of Hezbollah is very different from the terrorist organizations which we are currently battling. Those who feel that Hezbollah is not a terrorist organization, would label it a “resistance force” against Israel aggression.
Hezbollah is an anti-Zionism organization, but denies they are anti-Semitic. The anti-Zionism ideology typically begins with the idea that Israel was created by the United Nations in 1948, and resulted in the displacement of many Palestinians from their homeland. Muslims and Jews have lived in peace for centuries. The anti-Zionist ideology blames the arrival of European Jews after World War II as the origins between the conflicts. They consider Zionism an expansionary philosophy, giving the country of Israel the control of the West Bank and the Gaza strip based on biblical references. As stated in the 2011 BBC article (see links below)
Hezbollah is committed to the destruction of Israel but it has also made statements indicating it would accept a two-state solution if the Palestinians agreed to it.
This is an obvious contradiction. But, having lived in the Middle East, I’m pretty used to this being acceptable.
The condemnation by the Gulf Cooperative Council of Hezbollah occurred in March 2016, even though Hezbollah had existed since 1984. This likely had more to do with Saudi Arabia’s conflicts with Iran, which also has strong secular basis (Saudi Arabia is mainly Sunni, Iran is mainly Shi’a). Interestingly, Iraq’s foreign minister came to the defense of Hezbollah in 2016, as follows:
Hezbollah “have preserved Arab dignity” and those who accuse them of being terrorists are terrorists themselves.
The Arab Spring uprisings have ended terribly in so many countries. Hezbollah’s support of the Muslim Brotherhood (remember this is a Sunni organization) is another reason the GCC member states, like Saudi Arabia and Egypt condemn Hezbollah.
Hezbollah has been accused of being involved in many violent attacks including the assassination of PM Rafic Hariri. See link on Hezbollah from Wikipedia.
Hezbollah’s Social Services
As per Wikipedia:
Hezbollah organizes an extensive social development program and runs hospitals, news services, educational facilities, and encouragement of Nikah mut‘ah. One of its established institutions, Jihad Al Binna’s Reconstruction Campaign, is responsible for numerous economic and infrastructure development projects in Lebanon. Hezbollah has set up a Martyr’s Institute (Al-Shahid Social Association), which guarantees to provide living and education expenses “for the families of fighters who die” in battle. An IRIN news report of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs noted:
Hezbollah not only has armed and political wings – it also boasts an extensive social development program. Hezbollah currently operates at least four hospitals, twelve clinics, twelve schools and two agricultural centres that provide farmers with technical assistance and training. It also has an environmental department and an extensive social assistance program. Medical care is also cheaper than in most of the country’s private hospitals and free for Hezbollah members.
According to CNN, “Hezbollah did everything that a government should do, from collecting the garbage to running hospitals and repairing schools.” In July 2006, during the war with Israel, when there was no running water in Beirut, Hezbollah was arranging supplies around the city. Lebanese Shiites “see Hezbollah as a political movement and a social service provider as much as it is a militia.” Hezbollah also rewards its guerilla members who have been wounded in battle by taking them to Hezbollah-run amusement parks.
Hezbollah is, therefore, deeply embedded in the Lebanese society.
Recent Events – Crown Prince Mohamed bin Salam and Trump’s actions
The ascent of Mohamed bin Salam as Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, has greatly increase the rift between the Sunni gulf coast countries and Iran, which is predominately Shi’a. Hezbollah and Hamas will be lumped together with all well known terrorist groups, including ISIS and Al-Qaeda in their united fight against terrorism. President Donald Trump was played by the Saudi hosts in his trip to Saudi Arabia, bu a secular attack on Iran.
The most bizarre event recently was the resignation of Lebanon PM Hariri in Saudi Arabia, then his “unresignation” a few weeks later. Technically, he’s putting his resignation on hold. He is not denouncing Hezbollah.
It is my prediction that Iraq will in the future, distance themselves from Saudi Arabia’s efforts, and seek improving relations with Lebanon, including Hezbollah.
Whether Hezbollah militias can someday be abandoned, and a political party based on social services, is anyone’s guess. Trump’s recent action to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, was a major setback to finding a peace agreement between Palestine and Israel, It may further push Hezbollah to continue to be a militant force of resistance to what they perceive as Zionism and Israel expansionary policies.
Just as I was ready to post this, Saudi Arabia claim they shot down a missile fired by Houthi militants aimed at Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia. There have been other recent missile launches against Saudi Arabia. The air strikes on Houthi rebels by Saudi Arabia have resulted in many civilian fatalities, so this is why they are retaliating.
The increased violence is extremely unfortunate, as there is a severe humanitarian crisis in Yemen with famine and disease, despite efforts by international aid agencies. Numerous obstacles including the Saudi Arabia’s blockade has limited assistance. Saudi’s contend they are not just at war with the Houthi rebels, but with Hezbollah and their number one supporter, Iran, as part of an overall campaign against terrorism.
Unfortunately, these conflicts just seem to get bigger and more polarized. And the civilian fatalities continue to rise.
It is very difficult to write a short blog on Hezbollah. My next blog will be shorter, just on the aid agencies which help the victims of conflict around the world.
Wikipedia: Lebanon Civil War
Wikipedia: Palestine Liberation Organization
Wikipedia: Oslo 1 Accord
Wikipedia: Mohammed bin Salman
Very good commentary from the NYT, but you have to understand the players, secular nature of these conflicts, and their history.
Note: I’ve made extensive use of Wikipedia. I find their information concise and factual.
There are many other sources of information, and it would be impossible to list all of them.